Frontier Status Report

Frontier Status Report #198

Frontier Status Report #198

April 14, 2000

Dale M. Gray

No launches this week. The Shuttle Atlantis was successfully repaired on the pad to keep it on track for its April 24 launch. Two cosmonauts set up housekeeping on Mir. Video of a Soviet launch disaster is aired on BBC even as Russia is celebrating Cosmonaut Day. The 30th Anniversary of Apollo 13 is remembered. Two breakthrough technologies with flywheel energy storage and ultrasonic drills announced. The Canadian Royal Mounted Police crack down on illegal satellite receivers from the US.

Frontier Corner editorial "Amateur Rockets Take Flight" now on-line at .

Highlights of the week of April 14 include:

  • Shuttle Atlantis repaired on the pad
  • Assembly of Proton to launch Service Module begun
  • X-38 parafoil load tested
  • X-33 aerospike engine tested for 250 seconds
  • X-Ray Multi-mission goes into safe mode
  • Cassini passes through asteroid belt
  • NEAR Shoemaker moves in for a closer look
  • Russian space disaster unveiled

SHUTTLE - The Space Shuttle Atlantis is back on track for an April 24 launch, thanks to an innovative procedure. A faulty Power Drive Unit (PDU) was installed in the tail of the Orbiter, while the Shuttle was still on the launch pad. The 340 pound PDU is the hydraulic unit that powers changes to the rudder / airbrake. The new unit, containing six hydraulic motors, was borrowed from the Shuttle Columbia, which is currently being upgraded in Palmdale, California. Rather than move the Shuttle back to the Vehicle Assembly Building and lose two weeks, NASA opted to try the tricky procedure using a variety of cranes, platforms, and a special cryogenic system to freeze the six hydraulic lines before they were disconnected. The PDU was removed in the evening of April 12. The replacement unit, flown in from the West Coast, was installed around midnight. The rudder drive shaft was reconnected on Friday. The new PDU will undergo a Frequency Response Test over the weekend to assure that it is fully functional. The Rotating Service Structure, which had been swung away from the Shuttle for the repairs, was moved back in place on April 13 (NASA; Florida Today; Spaceflight Now;

During the week, workers also replaced an electronics box in the Shuttle's aft compartment and a leaking hydraulic discharge hose on the Auxiliary Power Unit No. 1 and replaced a leaky quick disconnect on APU #3. The APUs were "hot tested" on April 10. An additional "hot test" of APU No. 1 is expected next week. The Shuttle's payload bay doors were closed for flight on April 11. Engineers are also assessing two minor "dings" on two liquid hydrogen lines in the aft compartment. Countdown for launch is scheduled to begin at 7:00 p.m. EDT on April 21. The crew will arrive the same day for the final three days of preparations (NASA; Spaceflight Now).

ISS - The orbiting elements of the International Space Station continue to operate nominally with the exception of the battery and antenna systems. Preparations are beginning for the arrival of the Shuttle Atlantis on April 26. The station is currently in a 372 x 344-km (231 x 214 mile) orbit decaying at a rate of 1-1.5 miles per week. Atlantis is expected to boost the altitude of the station by about 19 miles (NASA).

SpaceHab: On December 13, SpaceHab and Energia have teamed up to build a new module, Enterprise, for the International Space Station. On April 11, SpaceHab chairman announced that among other duties, the Enterprise module would serve as a television studio generating content such as news programs, orbital views of world events, and serve as a distribution point for educational materials on the Russian space program. The module could also be used for advertising, and even used in connection with sit-coms or other television fare. Being marketed under the name Space Media, the company is now seeking distribution deals and strategic alliances with news organizations, networks and cable operators worldwide. The module would also be equipped with high-bandwidth Internet services, a direct competitor to the Mir service announced last week. Enterprise is expected to up and operational by 2002. The announcement occurred at the annual National Association of Broadcasters trade show in Las Vegas (UPI; MSNBC; Frontier Status 12/17/99).

Proton: Assembly of the Proton rocket destined to launch the Zvezda Service Module has begun. Assembly of Zvezda is expected to be completed mid-May with delivery to the Baikonur launch site two weeks later. The launch appears to be on schedule for the announced July 8-14 launch window (NASA).

Russia: On the 39th anniversary of Gagarin's space flight (April 12 -- Cosmonaut Day), Russian President Vladimir Putin renewed his country's commitment to the International Space Station. He has stated that one of his key priorities is to restore his country's prestige and greatness, specifically mentioning the space sector. He has linked Russia's economic and scientific development with space (AP).

X-38: On Thursday, April 13, the parafoil system for the X-38 Crew Return Vehicle was tested at the Army's Yuma Proving Grounds in Arizona. The test featured the 7,500 square foot parafoil and a 24,000-pound cargo pallet. Although two of the suspension lines broke, the cargo pallet gently touched down. The next test of the system will feature the parafoil on an X-38 prototype at the Dryden Flight Research Center (

While the X-38 parafoil is being designed, constructed and tested for the crew support for the International Space Station, it is of more than casual interest to the Army. The ability to safely drop large cargo pallets carrying items such as a fully armed HumVee, a fuel bladder or a loaded truck has great strategic value in rapid response situations. The testing at the Army's Yuma Proving Grounds appears to contribute little to the X-38 program, but is helping define the system's operational limits to carry heavy loads. The two broken shroud lines indicate that they are exploring the upper end of the envelope (Editor's note).

MIR - Cosmonauts Sergei Zalyotin and Alexander Kaleri have set up housekeeping and have gotten to work on the orbiting Mir station. The pair have been busy this past week setting up experiments, activating and maintaining systems. Work was conducted on the station's thermal control system, which had developed air bubbles that clogged the pump. The station' temperature range is between 79 and 82 degrees with occasional spikes above 86 degrees. Repair work has been hampered by limited communications window with the ground. A data relay satellite that would have helped with communications has been grounded by lack of funds (; The Los Angeles Times).

The highest priority for the cosmonauts is to find the "microcrack" that is causing the gradual decompression of the station. The crew has already checked the Priroda and docking modules and has found no leak. The modules were sealed off from the rest of the station for two days while their pressure was monitored. The cosmonauts will now work to isolate individual components of the station and check them individually. This task is complicated by the maze of wires, cables and ducts that snake through the station's internal openings. The station is losing about 0.7 mm of pressure a day and as of April 10 stood with 622 mm of pressure (AP; BBC;

Putin: Having renewed his pledge to support the International Space Station, Vladimir Putin has also stated that he intends on finding 1.5 billion rubles (£22 million) for the Mir space station. The source of the funds is unclear since Russia has earmarked only £80 million for the entire space program this year. Putin will meet with the Russian Security Council by the end of the month to clarify Mir's status after August. Much of the station's future depends on the cosmonauts finding the source of the leak and resolving the issue (BBC).

LAUNCHES - No launches were reported for this week.


Ariane 5: The launch of the Astra 2B satellite and the GE-7 satellite on an Ariane 5 rocket has been delayed. Flight 130 has been moved from May 23 to sometime in July due to the unavailability of the Astra 2B satellite. The Astra 2B is owned by Societe Europeenne de Satellites. There is a possibility that the GE-7 may be launched sooner on a smaller Ariane 4 rocket or another satellite may be manifested on Flight 130 (Arianespace PR; Reuters; Spaceflight Now).

Ariane 4 / Galaxy IVR: Preparations are proceeding smoothly for a planned April 18 launch of an Ariane 4 rocket carrying the Galaxy IVR satellite. The Hughes 601HP satellite was shipped to Kourou on March 27 and is now in final preparations for launch. This will be the third Hughes satellite launched by Arianespace in three months (Business Wire).

Rockot: The first launch of the converted Rokot system has will be on May 15-16 from Plesetsk, Russia. The Council of Main Designers at the Khrunichev Space Center made the announcement after a recent meeting where it was noted that preparations are going according to plan. The Rockot, which has a capacity of carrying satellites with mass of up to 450 kg to a height of 500 km, will contain two mock satellites for its first launch. The 690-kg satellites will be placed into a 540-km orbit. The Rockot launch system is based on a converted SS-19 (UR-100) ICBM with a Briz KM booster unit (Interfax;

Marketed by Eurockot, the system managers originally expected to launch the RV SN-40 experimental satellite for the Russian Strategic Missile Forces, but the first flight was delayed by the accidental release of the payload shroud. The original Briz K upper stage was returned for inspection and replaced with a Briz KM upper stage. The original launcher was also damaged and was used for testing on the launch pad. A new converted SS-19 rocket has recently been installed on pad. After the accident, the system was configured to carry two dummy satellites that approximated Iridium satellites-- Eurockot had a contract to launch two Iridium satellites. The first commercial launch will now carry a pair of GRACE science satellites in June of 2001 (Interfax; Space Daily; Frontier Status 01/07/00;

Dnepr: The Russian space services company ISC Kosmotras has signed agreements with Saudi Arabia, Italy and Malaysia to deliver satellites to orbit using its Dnepr rocket. The rocket, launched in August of 2000, will deliver two Saudi, two Italian and one Malaysian satellites into a 650-km orbit. The Dnepr rocket is based on the SS- 18 ICBM, which was code-named "Satan" by the West during the Cold War. The converted missile will be outfitted with a KMPG satellite dispenser and an exotic upper stage developed during the Cold War for the multiple delivery of warheads. The unique upper stage design "pulls" the satellite container and continues at low thrust during the satellite delivery to space the satellites at 5-km intervals. The rocket will deliver Saudisat 1-A and 1-B (10 kg each), UNISAT (10 kg), Megsat 1 (54 kg) and TiungSat 1 (54 kg). A total of 150 SS-18 missiles are available for conversion (

X-33: Boeing Rocketdyne Propulsion & Power has set a new record for endurance in their testing of the X-33 linear aerospike engine. The XRS-220 engine was fired at Stennis Space Center for 250 seconds. This establishes a new base line for future single engine tests. All test objectives were met. Post test inspections are currently under way (NASA Marshall SFC).

China: China announced this past week that the Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center (JSLC) has been chosen at the launch site for future Chinese manned mission. China has made a commitment to launch manned missions within 10 years. A successful test of the system was conducted on November 30, 1999 when a capsule, resembling a Soviet Soyuz capsule, was launched on a Long March (CZ-2F) rocket from the Jiuquan launch center in the Gobi desert. The dummy placed on board was referred to as a "Taikonaut", but recent press releases have referred to Chinese space travelers as "yuhangyuan" (Space Daily; Frontier Status 11/26/99).


Fly Wheels: Researchers at the Glenn Research Center and at U. S. Flywheel Systems, Inc. have achieved a new benchmark for flywheel energy storage. A device using magnetic bearings achieved a spin rate of 60,000 revolutions per minute (rpm). At this speed, the outer edge of the flywheel is traveling 2.5 time the speed of sound (1,875 mph). The device is the result of a five year program including industry partners TRW and Boeing, along with academic partners Texas A&M and the University of Texas Center for Electro-mechanics. All aspects of the flywheel system were examined and findings incorporated into a system at U. S. Flywheel's facility in California. The device is so efficient that 85 percent of the energy put into the system can be retrieved. Because they can store more energy per pound than chemical batteries and are equally efficient in a wide range of temperatures, the flywheels are natural candidates for use in the International Space Station. Advanced flywheel technology is expected to combine traditional attitude control functions with energy storage. A flight system is expected to be ready by 2004 (Space Daily).

Ultrasonic Drill: NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory has announced that it has developed a small, lightweight drill that is based on ultrasonic technology. The drill has applications for drilling core samples on planetary lander missions. closer to home the drill has applications in surgery. The unit is so small that it can fit in the palm of the hand. Because piezoelectric actuators drive it, it has only two moving parts with no gears or motors. The long- lasting drill never needs sharpening. It can work in a variety of temperature ranges and can core hard rocks such as granite without significant weight on the drill bit. The 0.7- kg demonstration unit can drill a 12-millimeter hole in granite using only 10 watts of power. The hole can be round, square or a hexagon. The patent for the device is held by Cybersonics, Inc. The technology was funded by NASA's Exploration Program (NASA).

Cryogenics Testbed Facility: On Friday, April 14, NASA opened the doors to their new Cryogenics Testbed Facility at the Kennedy Space Center. The Facility will help bridge the gap between laboratory testing and the rigors of outer space. The Facility was designed and built with a $750,000 grant from the state of Florida. NASA contributed $1.56 million for test support equipment. Dynacs invested $20,000 for start-up and marketing. The CTF is part of Spaceport Florida's continued efforts to keep and attract space-related business (Space Daily).


RCMP: The Royal Canadian Mounted Police has declared war on US Direct Broadcast Satellite television systems. The RCMP has seized hundreds of satellite receiver systems with a street value estimated at $250,000. Four Canadians and the Global Botanical Corporation have been charged with offenses under the Radiocommunications Act and the Criminal Code of Canada. The exhibits seized were made available for a media photo - op on April 7. The accused appeared before the Ontario Court of Justice on April 12. The news article did not mention whether the defendants were under the influence of US television at the time of arrest (CNW).

Satellite TV Service Bill: The House version of the Satellite TV Service Bill was approved by a 375 - 37 vote on April 13. The loan guarantee program generated by the bill would cover 80 percent of any defaulted loans used to provide DBS television to rural area. The program will be administered by the U. S. Department of Agriculture and will be phased out in 2006 (AP).

Satellite Licensing: Space Systems / Loral continues with its battle with the U. S. State department over the disposition of the $185 million ChinaSat 8 telecommunications satellite. The satellite's export to China for launch has been blocked the State Department as a result of allegations over technology transfers. If the company does not get permission to export the satellite, it will have to return $132 million in advances to the China Telecommunications Broadcast Satellite, pay $13 million in penalties and spend another $38 million to refurbish the satellite for resale. Loral and ChinaSat have agreed to postpone the delivery of the satellite to as late as July 31, 2000 (


XMM: The X-Ray Multi-mission (XMM) - Newton observatory entered safe mode on April 2. The observatory responded correctly and placed itself in the "Emergency Sun Acquisition Mode" and alerted ground controllers of the situation. The mode was triggered when a command to execute a new maneuver occurred too soon after the previous one during a manual operation, resulting in a command conflict. This in turn triggered the safing event. Controllers understood the problem immediately and were able to begin their checklist as soon as the observatory reached safe position. After about 10 hours XMM-Newton returned to normal science operations. The XMM-Newton was launched on an Ariane 5 rocket on December 10, 1999 and commissioned on March 8 of 2000 (ESA PR; Frontier Status March 24, 2000).


Cassini: The Cassini mission to Saturn passed a milestone this past week with its passage out of the asteroid belt. While the region between Mars and Jupiter contains a concentration of asteroids, concentration is a relative term. The closest the spacecraft came to an asteroid was with asteroid Masursky on January 23, 2000 when it imaged the object at 1.6 million km. Cassini is only the seventh spacecraft to pass through the asteroid belt. The spacecraft entered the asteroid belt in December of 1999. Cassini was launched in October of 1997 and is expected to swing by Jupiter on December 30, 2000 on its way to Saturn in July 1, 2004. Cassini is a joint project between NASA, the ESA and the Italian Space Agency (NASA PR).

NEAR Shoemaker: The NEAR Shoemaker spacecraft executed a 5-second burn on April 11 to circularize its orbit around the asteroid Eros. The maneuver places NEAR only 100 km from the center of the asteroid. The spacecraft will stay in this orbit for 11 days before descending down to a 50-km orbit. Because of the slight gravity of the situation, the spacecraft is currently moving only 5 mph in respect to the asteroid and will take about four days to orbit Eros. The spacecraft has orbited the asteroid only five times since February 14 due to its slower speed at the higher orbit (NASA JPL).

Mars Polar Lander: Just because NASA lost track of their Mars Polar Lander, doesn't mean you can't build a copy of your own. You can now download instructions and parts sheets from the web site. The project is recommended for space enthusiasts 10 years and older.

Assembly instructions (PDF file):

Parts sheet (PDF file):

(Warning: this is a true scale model, do not attempt planetary landing).


Iridium: The system that died and took an industry with it, may yet be restored to life. Iridium Middle East (IMEC) is planning to present a rescue plan at the end of April. The plug was pulled on Iridium on March 17 (Newsbytes News Network).

Meanwhile, plans are moving forward to deorbit the 88 satellites of the Iridium system. The Iridium Satellite Network Operations Center is coordinating with the Space Command Center to bring the satellites down four at a time over the next two years (NY Times).

Hughes / Intelsat: The FCC has given Hughes Global Services (HGS) permission for direct access to Intelsat. The move will allow HGS to provide its customers with improved access and simplifies the process. HGS General Services Administration; Federal Technology Service currently provides government clients with products and services through a "e-commerce" like interface. The direct access to Intelsat will give HGS's government clients additional satellite-based services (Hughes; Space Daily).

Starsem / SkyBridge: On April 12, Starsem and SkyBridge announced an agreement whereby Starsem will become an equity partner in SkyBridge in exchange for launch services. Alcatel, the prime contractor for the 88-satellite broadband communications system, has contracted with Starsem for the launch of 32 of the satellites on 11 Soyuz/Fregat rockets. the first launch is to occur in 2002. The contract also includes an option for additional launches as required. Alcatel previously contracted with Boeing for the launch of 40 of the satellites on Delta rockets (SkyBridge/Starsem PR).


Anik F2: The Canadian Space Agency (CSA) has announced that it will be putting C$80 million to help Telesat Canada and two other companies with a high power satellites to beam multimedia services to Canadians. Telesat will receive C$60 million to help develop and launch a Ka band high-speed multimedia payload on its Anik F2 satellite -- valued at C$600 million. ComDev and EMS Technologies will share a C$20 million grant to develop communication processor equipment. The move on the part of the CSA is to lower the cost of multimedia services to Canadians through relatively inexpensive terminals. In return Telesat will provide C$29 million of multimedia services to schools and institutions for the life of the satellite. Anik F2 will be a Hughes 702 telecommunication satellite with 108 active transponders -- 52 in the Ka-band, 32 in the Ku-band and 24 in the C-band. The satellite will deliver 14 kW of power. Anik F2 will be launched in 2002. (Reuters; CNW).

Escort: AeroAstro and Space Machine Advisors are working together to develop a "microsatellite doctor" to inspect and diagnose communication satellites during deployment and service. The service, called Escort", revolves around a micro-satellite that will accompany the client satellite to orbit and use non-optical and visual sensors to monitor satellite deployment and give operators immediate understanding of problem situations (Space Daily).


Teledesic: The fall of Iridium with combined with the recent plunge of the NASDAQ have placed the completion of the Teledesic Internet-in-the-Sky in doubt. While founder Craig McCaw maintains that the problems can be worked out, he is preparing a plan for redesigning Teledesic that will be revealed within six weeks. The company may drastically cut the number of planned satellites. Teledesic is taking control of the troubled ICO Global and will build its system "on top" of ICO's. Teledesic currently plans to bring high-speed Internet to 95 percent of the world by 2004 using a constellation of 244 low earth orbit communications satellites (USA Today).

Globalstar: On April 11, Qualcomm demonstrated the transmission of Internet data on the Globalstar satellite network during the ITU America in Rio de Janeiro. The capability is an enhancement of the Globalstar network, which is already providing voice communications worldwide. The company expects to add packetized data services on a commercial basis this summer and other data services later in 2000. The demonstration in Rio transmitted e-mail and other data through the Globalstar network and across the Internet at a rate of up to 9,600 bps (Globalstar PR).

Helios: As an alternative to satellite Internet-in-the-Sky, NASA is developing a high-altitude, pilotless aircraft named Helios. Using solar cells and fuel cell technology, Helios is targeted for a 96-hour nonstop flight in 2003. With improving technology, the system is expected to be able to fly for six months at a time. Expected uses include providing local high-speed Internet access. Planes can be placed over urban centers or in areas whose infrastructure has been destroyed by natural disaster. Airplanes can provide Internet access at 1/20th the cost of satellite Internet services. The 2,000-pound prototype airplanes have a wingspan of 250 feet and have flown as high as 80,000 feet. The operational airplanes will probably fly around 65,000 feet. The service will probably be inaugurated near the equator and gradually move north with improved technology (Reuters).


Soviet Space Disaster: Even as Russia celebrated Cosmonaut Day, Russian TV has shown pictures of a 1980 disaster at the Plesetsk Cosmodrome. At the time, Pravda reported that the Vostok launch had been a success. However, in reality the March 18, 1980, explosion left 48 Soviet Missile Troops dead. The explosion of 300 tons of rocket fuel obliterated the rocket, the Ikar military spy satellite, launch pad and the surrounding area. Doctors at a nearby hospital treated personnel with horrific burns especially in their lungs. A subsequent state commission put the blame on operator error resulting in the escape of liquid oxygen. The Russian television show documenting the disaster found that the explosion was from a leakage of hydrogen peroxide caused by the poor quality of the rocket's fuel filters. The program concluded by stating that pre-launch procedures at Plesetsk were established during the Cold War and remain unchanged since that time. Over 2,000 satellites have been launched from Plesetsk (BBC; Russians in Space).

Apollo 13: This week (April 11) marks the 30th Anniversary of the launch of Apollo 13. On its way to the Moon, an explosion ripped through the oxygen tanks, leaving the Command Module rapidly dying and the three Apollo astronauts dependent on their Lunar Module to get them back to Earth alive. With inspired work from the mission controllers, quality craftsmanship of the builders of the space ships, and the prayers of people around the world, Jim Lovell, Fred Haise and Jack Swigert were able to survive the return trip and reactivate the Command Module capsule long enough to parachute to safety in the Pacific Ocean.


South Korea: Spurred by a threat to cancel a $1.2 billion deal for multiple-launch rockets, the US has agreed to meet with South Korean officials and discuss plans to extend the range of South Korea's missiles. South Korea wishes to increase the range of its missiles from 180 km to 200 km for military purposes and to 500 km for scientific purposes. South Korea agreed in the 1970s to limit its missile range to 180 km in exchange for US missile technology. The increase in range is a response to increased threat from North Korea. Washington fears the increase in range will spawn an arms race in the unstable region (Space Daily).

Space-Based Laser Integrated Flight Experiment: The USAF is reexamining a 1970s concept for a space-based laser defense. The Air Force has teamed with Boeing, Lockheed Martin and TRW to design, develop and conduct the experiment. The experiment would involve an orbiting megawatt-class laser with a 4 meter reflecting surface. The 20,000 -22,000 kg laser platform would be launched on the heavy-lift Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle in 2012 to carry out three years of tests. The laser would be used to target dummy missile. The system would be designed to intercept limited numbers of targets, not massive strikes. The first launch of an operational system could be made by 2020. The ABM treaty specifically prohibits the use of space-based weapons. The concept was revealed during the 16th National Space Symposium in Colorado Springs, Colorado (


Courtesy J. Ray, and J. Foust

Spaceflight Now - Tracking Station: World Wide Launch Schedule
Spaceviews Website

April 17 - Proton, Sesat, Baikonur, Kazakhstan.

April 18 - Ariane 4 - Galaxy 4R, Kourou, French Guiana.

April 21 - Delta, NAVSTAR GPS 2R-4, pad 17A, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station.

April 24 - Shuttle Atlantis (STS-101), ISS flight 2A.2A, Kennedy Space Center.

April 27-29 - Space Access 2000 conference, Scottsdale, Arizona.

April 28 - Cosmos-3M, CHAMP/BIRD/MITA, Complex 132, Plesetsk, Russia.

Late April / Early May - Soyuz U, Progress M1, Baikonur, Kazakstan.

April - Zenit-2, Badr-2, Meteor-3M, Malaysian Tiungsat-1, Maroc-Tubsat, Complex 45 Baikonur, Kazakstan.

May 3 - Atlas 2A, GOES-L, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Florida.

May 8 - Titan 4B, DSP Payload (B-29), SLC-40, Cape Canaveral Air Station.

May 10 - Orbital Sciences TLV (Target Launch Vehicle, TL-DEMO, LF-06, Vandenberg AFB.

May 15- Eurockot Rokot, Experimental payload, Plesetsk, Russia.

May 15- Atlas 3A, Eutelsat W-4, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. Inaugural Launch.

May 21 - Pegasus XL, TSX 5, Vandenberg AFB.

May 24 - Minuteman III, FTM-02, Vandenberg AFB.

July - Ariane 5, Astra 2B and GE-7, ELA-3, Kourou, French Guiana.

July 10-14 - Proton, ISS flight 1R, Zvezda Service Module, Baikonur, Kazakstan.

CENSUS - With the April 4 launch of a Soyuz rocket carrying two cosmonauts, the population of space now stands at two. Mir has been occupied for 9 days. Humans have spent a total of 89.5 man-days in orbit in the year 2000. The first element of the International Space Station has been in orbit for 512 days. The occupation of the International Space Station is expected to begin in the fall of 2000.

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