Summary of Available Launchers
|Country - Maker
|| Payload Capacity
|| Success Rate (to late 1994)|
||Ariane - 4
|| 7° - LEO
||4600 kg - A40
||$55-65M 2000 to 2500 kg
||94.5% overall, 97.5% last 25 launches|
|6000 kg - A42P
||$65-80M 2500 to 3000 kg|
|6500 kg - A44P
||$55-65M 3000 kg+|
|7000 kg - A42L/A44LP|
|(costs indep of booster)|
|Ariane - 5 (should be man-rated)
||28.5° - 70x300km
|| 22, 600 kg
|| unk - estimates to $250M
|| 0% - First flight in May 1996, IOC in early 1997|
|28.5° - 550km
|| 18,000 kg|
|China||Long March - (CZ-) 2E
||28.5° - 400km
|Long March - (CZ-) 3
||31.1° - 300km||4500 kg
||$25 to 35M||75%|
||Proton -K (SL-13)||51.6° - LEO
||51.6° - LEO
||0% - IOC estimated 1997|
||12° - 200km
||initial discussions on commercial availability
|Japan - NASDA
||H2||30° - 250km
||10,100 kg||¥11B (currently $110M)
||0% - IOC 1996|
||Titan - 3||28.6° - 148x259km
|Atlas - 2A
||28.5° - 185km
||Delta II - 7925/7920
||28.7° - LEO
|USA - NASA
||28.6° - 200km||25,000 kg
||$356 M||98.6% (Feb 96)|
As can be seen from the figures, a reference mission mass
of 55,000 kg puts all operational launchers but Proton and the STS out of the game for everything but dedicated fuel
launches (if they are made). And the Proton's inclination would add mass to the
reference mission for inclination change fuel. Even if we went with Proton or
split up the mission into more then two launches, the Proton's payload envelope
is 1 m too narrow and 7 m too short for the full triple-spacehab module, and the rest
are even smaller.
The only good news is that the Ariane-5 will support payloads in the STS
envelope range (4.6m x 17m). It has completed its pre-launch testing program and
ESA has authorized commencement of the run-up to flight 501 in May of this year
the Press Release).
Also, if the USAF releases Martin-Marietta to commercialize the Titan-4, its
mass range is close to our needs.
Launcher data from Jane's Space Directory, 1994-1995.
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