SITUATION: A deranged individual is holding several tourists hostage in a lunar base habitat module, which he has isolated by depressurizing all adjacent modules but one. He is demanding an immediate flight home, or he will kill himself and his hostages by explosive decompression.
The need for Security and Police Services off-world will be the same as it is on Earth; communities anywhere are made up of individual human beings, subject to individual human nature. While human technology and human society have developed greatly over the past several thousand years, human physical form hasn't.1 As a result, individual human nature is still such that people do not always act on the basis of reason or for selfless purposes. Now, statistically, the larger the number of people selected to go into space or who pay to go, the larger the probability that one or more might succumb to some form of stress or are simply the "high-risk" antisocial type, prone to act out when properly motivated.2 As noted science/science-fiction writer Ben Bova wrote, "There will always be criminals among us, because there will always be a few men and women who want to bypass the accepted rules of their society, who want to try to break the Second Law of Thermodynamics and get something for nothing-or at least, get something for far less work than they would have to exert to get it legally...It seems to me that once a sizable number of humans begin living and working in space, we will find plenty of such manipulators [those who skirt the edges of the law, pushing and poking and manipulating for financial gain or personal power] out there. After all, the space frontier will be a region where new opportunities arise, and where the usual restraints of the law are far away."3
Security and Police Services are two distinct functions and bear further explanation before discussing why they are necessary. Security Services protect the collective assets of the community such as power plants, banks, hospitals, and hazardous industrial areas. Police Services are more personally community-related and involve responses to incidents including homicide, suicide, assault, theft, and domestic quarrels. The two disciplines are practiced together to deter crime, or if that fails, bring those responsible to justice. As an example, the United States Air Force Security Forces successfully combine these two fields into a single organization, which efficiently protects both the community and the mission of an Air Force base.4
When private companies start to employ people off-world to explore, mine, and build & operate facilities for paying customers, the off-world population will become larger and more heterogeneous and the psychological and social issues will become more complex.5 Combined with an environment where the irrational act of one person could be devastating,6 the establishment and enforcement of the rule of law becomes critical to maintaining the safety of the community. Even now, U.S. Shuttle commanders have authority to enforce order and discipline on board as a matter of criminal jurisdiction under Title 18 of U.S. Code.7 In the future, some type of off-world security/police presence could even be a requirement by a company's insurers.
The importance of further research on the topic of police procedures for this environment has been identified in NASA literature.8 This author disagrees, however, with the proposal in the cited work that security/police force duties rotate among all members of the community to prevent "police/citizen schisms"; other members of the community can be trained to augment in an emergency, but these duties require very specific training and intrinsic human relation skills. Any potential schisms can be dealt with or even prevented by using current community oriented policing philosophies.9
The need for off-world security and police services can be illustrated by asking the questions of who will inhabit the off-world community and what makes the location of this community unique from a Security/Police perspective, then asking a third question of what might go wrong.Who Will Inhabit the Off-world Community?
Some might argue that, because the only people to go into space will be so carefully selected and screened, there will be no conflicts or incidents; this ignores the difference between a government program and a commercial venture. So far, the only people who have gone into space have done so as part of either the U.S. or Russian space programs, for either research or military purposes. Given the small number of people currently needed in space at any one time, the fact that the military astronauts are already on the government payroll, and the lack of a need for a government program to turn a profit, the U.S. and Russia can afford to have a highly select group of people turning wrenches and operating cranes in orbit. Private companies won't be able to operate this selectively with respect to their employees, much less their customers. We can better gauge the need for security/police in an off-world community by looking at how many there might be, their motivation to go, and what their activities will be once they get there.
Population Size-As an example, these proposed stages of Lunar development10 use the following permanent population figures:
Initial Lunar Base--6 to 12 people
Early Lunar Settlements--100 to 1000 people
Mature Lunar Settlement--1000 to 10,000 people
Autonomous Lunar Civilization--10,000 to 100,000 people
The previously mentioned authority given to Shuttle commanders might suffice for 6 to 12 people, but at some point the population will exceed any commander's or governor's individual ability to ensure the safety and security of the entire group.
Motivation-Over the last hundred years or so, Earth has run out of physical frontiers in the sense of places into which populations could expand. Prior to this, there was still a New World to explore in the Americas and Australia. Groups of people had the chance to emigrate and establish their own societies. Off-world opportunities will attract the same types of people who built our modern world over the past several centuries, whose motivations include politics (with economic and religious underpinnings), intellectual pursuits, or any combination thereof.
The following quotes from the TV documentary Space Colonies11 illustrate the range of motives:
Dr Robert Zubrin stated: "In the 19th century, an idea took hold of people in this country that sent hundreds of thousands of people barreling west in wagon trains and it wasn't just to seek their personal fortunes. It's that they came to understand that they could be part of something grand, the establishment of a continental nation based on principles of progress and liberty and they wanted to be part of it." Regarding a Mars colony specifically "I believe that when it becomes technologically possible to settle Mars as it can be very shortly, there will be any number of people willing to participate in that, however the hardships." "Who will do this? Well, it could be people seeking adventure, it could be people who are driven there as refugees, it could be people who are members of a religious sect who find that they need to have a place where they can go where they can make their own world. Once it becomes possible to go, people will go. I believe that within 50 years after that, you'll probably have more than a million people living on Mars."
Jim Benson, CEO of SpaceDev, was quoted regarding his Near Earth Asteroid Prospector mission: "I'm going out to do this to both open up space for humanity, but also to make money doing it." "I believe that commercial enterprises can make money in space and once we do it then everybody else will see that it can be done and that will open up the vision of the future for all the people who want to go out and build space colonies and mine the asteroids and live on the moon and Mars."
Activities-Regardless of the motivation, activities will be whatever people a) are paid to do, or b) pay to do:
The employees will cover a wide range of whatever services are required to support the community and the endeavors it's involved in. Like it or not, different jobs will demand different salaries and class distinctions could arise (the gulf between the "Haves" and the "Have Nots" has been a historical factor in crime and will likely continue to be.) Stringent background checks on prospective employees will mitigate this to a degree, but it won't be a guarantee as there is always the "first-time offendor."12
The paying customers will be, of course, whoever can afford it (or win it as a prize package on a game show.13) In the context of tourism, following the precedent of airlines and cruise ships, security checks on these people will probably be limited to metal detectors and luggage inspection prior to departure versus more intrusive background checks. The degree of security in this case would be based on a weighing of these factors: potential consequences of an incident, the cost of more thorough checks, and loss of revenue from potential customers simply discouraged by the added inconvenience. Today's problem of "air rage", which the U.S. FAA calls "passenger interference with crew"14, could also arise off-world. Although people probably won't be stuck in the equivalent of coach seating for two to three days outbound to the moon, it could still be stressful on an individual and trigger unacceptable behavior. Training and certification of customers on pressure suits and microgravity environments can help identify those with unmanageable claustrophobia, space sickness, or other adverse (even psychotic) reactions to space travel, but again, there is no guarantee that this will prevent all incidents.
In addition, the spacefaring nations of the day will still have their personnel engaged in various research or military missions, possibly becoming the first and largest "paying customers" at commercial facilities.
Of course, there will likely be other (competing) companies doing any number of things in space with their own employees and customers, raising the possibility of face to face disputes over who found what first. It is important then, that all the various security/police personnel employed by competing companies be certified as such by a recognized authority at the State, National, or even International level. Their overriding obligation will have to be to the rule of law versus the proprietary interests of their employers, otherwise they would essentially be private armies, potentially misused to unjustly enforce territorial claims at gunpoint.
Finally, as single-stage-to-orbit technology advances, and lower-cost access to space becomes a reality, there will be people in the world such as Iraqi leader Saddam Hussein or Kim Chong-il of North Korea who would want to use that technology to threaten or destroy. Controls on technology transfers, sanctions, weapons inspectors, air strikes, etc. will keep rogue nations in line, however, they do have their terrorist allies and agents who, in the case of Saudi expatriate millionaire Osama bin-Laden, can be very well-funded. Given the opportunity of any other paying customer, there is no reason to expect terrorists not to take their activities off-world. A commercial Lunar base would definitely be a high-visibility target, but a sufficient security/police presence could discourage hostile acts.
The next question is:What Makes the Location of this Community Unique from a Security/Police Perspective?
Essentially, it comes down to five environmental factors:
Distance from the parent population. This will be a stress factor on people psychologically, especially when families are separated and something goes wrong back home which the person off-world cannot do anything about.15 For the community in general, it will drive self-sufficiency in the sense that it will be more economical to have the support infrastructure of doctors, dentists, cops, lawyers, etc. in place versus shipping people back to Earth for these services.
Reduced gravity environment. Relatively the more benign factor, operating outside of a 1-g "gravity well" still provides numerous opportunities for people to act dangerously, ranging from reckless human-powered flying in open, pressurized habitat domes to deliberately guiding an asteroid onto downtown Tel Aviv.
Zero to partial atmospheric pressure (none of it breathable) with temperature extremes. Probably the least benign factor; various resources will become far more important than they would be on Earth. Anything immediately involved with life support including power production and air handling will require some kind of security safeguards to prevent inadvertent or deliberate tampering. Airlocks will also have to be made as foolproof as possible. As a psychological stress factor, it's the fear that if the technology fails, you die. Habitable space will be a precious commodity, and in an emergency where life support has failed in one area, people could panic16 and overwhelm the life support capabilities of remaining areas. In the research just cited, the probability of panic in an off-world accident is considered remote, however this is in regards to the crew; how would a transient population of less-trained tourists/guests/passengers react?
Radiation hazards. In addition to the fear of dying by suffocation while having one's blood boil, freezing in shadow, and/or burning in sunlight, the fear of death by radiation poisoning (from daily exposure or solar flares) is also stressful. Again, this puts added value on any habitable space capable of protection. Recent developments in solar observation17 have increased warning times for solar flares, so a more organized emergency response will be possible. Lunar Prospector probe data18 indicates localized magnetic fields (approx. 100 km in diameter) on the surface of the moon capable of standing off the solar wind; if these areas have any shielding potential, they could become prime real estate. Still, there is the same potential in a solar flare emergency for panic amongst the populace or others from outside the immediate community who cannot make it back to their own shelters in time.
Variable light/dark cycles. Another stress factor, although there is more experience with this from space shuttle missions19, submarines, and wintering over at Antarctica. This factor could also drive the need for nuclear power supplies (currently fission) to partially support a lunar-based community since solar power would not be available for 14 days at a time for the vast majority of locations. In addition to their value as a power source for life support, the nuclear materials would have an intrinsic need for security measures. Being able to prove that the nuclear materials will be adequately safeguarded will likely be a requirement before an Earth government would allow the "export" of such a system, assuming no environmentalist protests. Local mining and processing of lunar radioactive ores will overcome the Earth export problems, however local security measures will still be required.
Now, given that the off-world community will represent nearly every walk of life from today's communities, and that it will occupy an environment at best foreign to our experience and at worst unremittingly hostile to life, the next question is:What Might Go Wrong?
There are numerous examples of crimes that can happen in any community and trying to discuss them all here would simply belabor the point that security/police services are necessary. Here are a few hypothetical scenarios, though, that also show the need for unique procedures or research and development of new operational techniques and technologies. First, the situation used to introduce this paper:
Hostage Situation/Barricaded Suspect: A deranged individual is holding several tourists hostage in a lunar base habitat module, which he has isolated by depressurizing all adjacent modules but one. He is demanding an immediate flight home, or he will kill himself and his hostages by explosive decompression. Any kind of emergency response personnel, either security or life-support or medical, will need the ability to move immediately from a pressurized environment to vacuum and back again. Current soft-shell suits require long periods of nitrogen purging and decompression for astronauts because of the suit's 4.3 PSI internal pressure, necessary to keep the suit flexible. Hard-shell suits, however, with relatively high internal air pressures, can be more immediately employed. The two options would appear to be either use hard-shell suits or keep dedicated response teams on a rotating stand-by (increasing personnel requirements) in a nitrogen-purged 4.3 PSI oxygen environment. In this example, if a police negotiator is not successful and a tactical resolution is deemed appropriate, what are some of the needs of the security personnel in the design of their equipment? Lethal versus non-lethal weapons is the first question, considering the importance of not breaching atmosphere containment. Also, in a security/police context, the idea is to use the MINIMUM amount of force necessary to do the job and that starts with non-lethal force. However, if the perpetrator is wearing a pressure suit and about to irreparably sabotage the main power supply, non-lethal weapons might be ineffective and unable to neutralize the threat in time. Current firearm designs, lethal or not, will have to be adapted to include the following: special lubricants that won't seize up in vacuum, the need for radiative cooling versus convective cooling (weapons must be allowed to dissipate heat during firing to prevent mechanical failure or ammunition detonation), and vacuum-suitable materials of the proper color to prevent excess heating in unshielded sunlight. "Tactical" pressure suits is another question, where the enhancements might include increased ballistic protection and helmets with built-in night vision and amplified binaural hearing. A tactical entry into a facility is difficult enough already for any modern SWAT team; doing it in pressure suits will surely impose limitations and require the development of new techniques.
Suicide: A partially clothed body is found blown out of an airlock on the lunar surface. This is initially classified as an "unattended death" pending further investigation which reveals a suicide note in the victim's sent e-mail file; this is supported by the statements of witnesses and security camera records. An on-site investigation is most practical as it would otherwise require the entire operation be shut down and all personnel returned to Earth. What forensic techniques are required to handle the body and examine both it and the airlock for evidence? What are the effects of vacuum and radiation on fingerprints and DNA samples? Can an accurate toxicology screening be done on a desiccated body?
Domestic Disturbances: A married couple, who are both employees of the lunar base parent company, have suffered a strained relationship since their arrival, occasionally requiring a police response to break up their arguments. Recently, the couple separated when the wife was found to be having an affair with a co-worker. The husband is a power production technician and has had trouble dealing with the break-up of his marriage. This is a question of privacy versus the need for official attention and action. Human relationships form and come apart all the time, but the failure of an intimate sexual and romantic relationship, especially when one person then pairs up with someone new, is very stressful. Privacy has to be respected, but privacy has limits if an assault occurs or if an individual is not able to devote all their attention to their job. In an isolated community like this, where people depend on each other for their lives, is it an acceptable risk to let an individual continue to perform sensitive duties, such as power production technician, when their mind is not on their job?
Ration Control/Black Market: A supply clerk, with advance information on the contents of shipments from Earth, knows that potato chips aren't always considered "essential". Being a rare item to begin with, and knowing when they are coming in, she begins hoarding them as soon as they hit the shelves in the community exchange. Seeing the opportunity for profit, she starts selling them to her friends for twice the retail price. Goods that still need to be "imported" to the moon, potato chips simply being a humorous example, must be shipped at relatively high cost. It would be impractical to pass this cost on to the consumers, i.e., the employees and family members, so the cost would be absorbed into the operating budget and only a carefully planned quantity of items for supporting a specific number of people would be shipped. This is similar to the situation at U.S. military bases overseas where many consumer goods have to be "imported". A ration control system, where people are limited as to how much they can spend on groceries per month or how many of a specific item they can buy, could be useful to prevent the hoarding of scarce goods and profiteering from the scarcity.
Customs Violations: A tourist manages to bring a small piece of fresh fruit carried on their person all the way from Earth. Unfortunately, several fruit-fly larvae are also along for the ride. Once fully grown, they multiply and begin to feed on some of the crops grown for food and air purification. As the number of transiting people and cargo increases, so does the likelihood of introducing vermin ranging from fleas, to fruit flies to, possibly, rodents? Various sterilization methods might not be practical for all cargo and different companies might not be as careful as others would. How would cockroaches mutate after breeding for ten or so generations in 1/6th gravity? While not mentioned in this example, individual shot records would have to be checked at some point to ensure people have all necessary immunizations; could new strains develop in the enclosed lunar environment? Could an individual, having spent a protracted period on the moon, lose their immunity to certain diseases back home? Travelers between these two environments would have to be current in their immunizations for both.
Alarm Responses: Power for the lunar base is provided by a small nuclear reactor shielded in an adjacent crater. Due to the radiation hazard, human presence is limited and security must rely on sensors and cameras to detect unauthorized access. A first stage alarm has been tripped by something approaching the power conduits leading from the crater. This is followed immediately by vibration sensors on the conduits indicating some form of tampering. Having established a penetration pattern, a human security response is warranted. Visual assessment by camera confirms that an unauthorized individual is tampering with the power supply conduits. Given the environment, there will be alarms on anything sensitive which, if tampered with, could result in large loss of life. This is in addition to any kind of personal duress alarms or facilities storing drugs, weapons, explosives, or other hazardous materials. How responding personnel get to the alarm depends on distance. If the response is to a separate pressurized facility some distance away, pressure suits will obviously be required, as will some form of vehicle. Most people living and working in this environment will have to be certified in the use of a pressure suit, possibly a smaller number in the use of a wheeled surface vehicle. If the response requires flight, would Security/Police personnel be certified to use some type of suborbital ballistic "hopper"?
Bomb Threat: For the past three nights, bomb threats have been called into the restaurant at the lunar Hilton Hotel. No devices have been found so far, and suspicion is falling on recently terminated employees awaiting transport back to Earth. First, the threat has to be taken seriously, no matter how many times it appears to be a hoax. Currently, the best device for detecting explosives has four legs and a cold nose. However, adapting dogs to a low-gravity environment is problematic at best. Would the dog be able to move in a coordinated way? Would the keen sense of smell be dulled by the redistribution of their bodily fluids that would occur in reduced gravity? Electronic chemical sniffers, now in development, would probably be the best option in this situation and in Customs enforcement to find contraband substances.
Prisoner Escape: An individual awaiting trial on an assault charge is being escorted to see his defense counsel when a brief power failure occurs. He escapes from his guards and is now hiding somewhere in the base complex. He must be found quickly as he could take a hostage or threaten a vital piece of equipment. Assuming there is a confinement facility at the base, how would this individual be tracked? This again raises the question of privacy where an extensive surveillance system could be put in place with transponders in everyone's ID cards. In the case of an escaped prisoner, a variant of today's electronic ankle bracelet for those on parole could be used to track the prisoner, communicate with them, or even stun them by remote control.
Attempted Theft/Hijack of Spacecraft: A spacecraft maintenance technician, desperate to return home after learning of a death in his family, decides that he knows enough about the landers he works on to lift one off and pilot it back to Earth-orbit where he assumes he will be rescued and returned to Earth. Similar incidents have occurred with military aircraft overseas. Assuming that this individual is discovered before he can lift off, one of the first questions is how to safely disable the vehicle. A trained police negotiator can then be used to peacefully resolve the crisis. Failing that, a response team would have to have been trained to board and recapture the vehicle, placing the hijacker under arrest. Again, the question of tactical pressure suit equipment and procedures comes up.
Political Asylum: A group of scientists from Communist China is visiting the moon to study hydroponics techniques. During their stay, the senior (and most politically prominent) scientist approaches a security officer and requests political asylum. Whether the lunar community is independent or not, would the defector be beyond the normal reach of Chinese Communist authorities? If China has its own advanced human or robotic presence in space, would they threaten the community militarily to prevent the defection?
Spacecraft Approach/Landing Denial: Shortly after the defection of one of their scientists, a Chinese Space Agency spacecraft is enroute to the moon, requesting permission to land at the lunar base. Western Intelligence sources have informed the head of base Security/Police that this may be an attempt by the Chinese Communist government to take their citizen back into custody, or at least prevent his transfer into the hands of another country back on Earth. It is possible that the spacecraft is laser-equipped and carries armed personnel. As previously discussed, not everyone with access to a spacecraft will necessarily be friendly. How would the base be able to deny landing to this craft? Denial procedures could include placing obstacles in potential landing areas, however that could be a lot of area. Would defensive weapons using kinetic or radiant energy be a prudent thing to keep on hand?
Defense of Base from Ground Attack: Failing in their attempt to land at the base, the Chinese spacecraft lands over the horizon (a relatively short distance on the moon) and delivers a contingent of elite People's Liberation Army (PLA) troops. Their orders are to blockade the lunar base against any surface or space traffic. If that pressure fails to produce the defector, they will enter by force. Is the base sufficiently developed as a sovereign state to have a standing military force? If not, how would Security/Police personnel be able to maintain a defense until the arrival of forces from some other country or entity with which they are allied?
Terrorist Acts: The parent company of a lunar base has funded a two-person mission to a near-Earth asteroid. The spacecraft, launched from the moon, will rendezvous with and grapple onto a large asteroid. While there are no approved plans to alter the orbit of this asteroid, the spacecraft does have the engine capacity to do so. Because of this potential, security measures are established to ensure only authorized personnel from the lunar base have access to the spacecraft. Several weeks prior to launch, information developed from discrepancies in an employee background check indicates that one of the lunar base ground support crew, a Russian-trained Uzbekistani Muslim, has ties with the terrorist organization of Osama bin-Laden. Further investigation reveals that this individual intended to hijack the spacecraft in order to alter the asteroid's orbit for an impact in Israel if certain demands were not met. This threat was deemed credible as the spacecraft was capable of doing so, including providing last-minute course corrections on descent, and the bin-Laden organization had access to computers capable of modeling the needed change in trajectory. Any technological capability, regardless of it's original purpose, can be used as a weapon; compare the proposed capabilities of any of today's entrepreneurial single-stage-to-orbit contenders with one of Saddam Hussein's Scud missiles. What problems does this raise about maintaining security for spacecraft, either before launch or in flight, if their intrinsic performance characteristics make them useful as weapons?
First Contact/Discovery of Possible Alien Artifacts: During a survey mission to the lunar farside, an apparent entrance to a buried facility is discovered. Symbols found match no known language and the construction appears to be too advanced to attribute to any human exploration to date. Wild speculation? Possibly, but only 12 men have been to the moon's surface so far and it's a big place, with over 14.6 million square miles of surface area. The further we push out into space, the greater the opportunity for discovery and if something like this were to happen, there would be immediate practical concerns and questions for those involved. What is the lunar base's position on the SETI (Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence) Institute's Declaration of Principles Concerning Activities Following the Detection of Extraterrestrial Intelligence and what implications does this have for maintaining information, communication, and operational security? On an individual or small-group basis, what kind of people will this draw to the moon? If the Heaven's Gate cult committed mass-suicide over just the idea that a UFO in the tail of a comet would pick up their souls, what kind of reaction will this provoke?Conclusion
The preceding scenarios have illustrated the need for a specifically designated and trained Security/Police presence off-world by showing that people will behave just as they do on Earth, only in a far less forgiving setting. The community will need both security for material assets and police services for the people. For efficiency and flexibility of cross-utilization, these two functions can be performed by the same organization. It is recommended that a small research and training cadre of security/police personnel be in place before any large population in order to validate or develop new operational techniques for this environment. Also, the following topics have been identified for further research (and future papers from this author) in the fields of Security and Police Services and/or other disciplines as noted in parenthesis.
-Threshold population at which security/police presence is required -Adapting pressure suits to tactical use -Adapting weapons, equipment, and tactics to the off-world environment -Physical apprehension and restraint of offendors in reduced gravity -What to do with offendors and where; questions of trial and confinement (Law) -Blood-borne pathogen hazards in reduced gravity (Medical) -Collecting, preserving, and analyzing evidence exposed to the environment (Medical) -Threats to people and crops from pests and disease (Medical, Public Health) -Monitoring reliability of personnel in sensitive positions such as life support or power production -Who needs training in flight-capable vehicles? (Needs of Management) -Suitability of dogs for detection/security work off-world versus development of electronic substitutes (Veterinary Medicine) -Privacy issues related to tracking movements of individuals for safety or security reasons (Law) -Political complications: diplomatic immunity, political asylum, etc. (Law) -Potential military conflicts: spacecraft landing denial and defense from ground attack -Exploitation of off-world environment and resources by terrorists -Internal/external security problems dealing with discovery of evidence of extraterrestrial intelligence (Law, Medical, Psychology, Theology)Notes
1. Ben Bova, The High Road (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1983), 78.
2. Mary M. Connors, Albert A. Harrison, and Faren R. Akens, Living Aloft: Human Requirements for Extended Spaceflight (NASA: Ames Research Center, 1985), 153.
3. Ben Bova, Future Crime (New York: Tom Doherty Associates, Inc., 1990), 3, 255.
4. United States Air Force Manual 36-2105, Officer Classification, atch 7, p 103 and United States Air Force Manual 36-2108, Airman Classification, atch 27, p 261. These two references outline the duties of officers and enlisted personnel in the USAF Security Forces, including resource security and law enforcement.
5. Mary M. Connors, Albert A. Harrison, and Faren R. Akens, Living Aloft: Human Requirements for Extended Spaceflight (NASA: Ames Research Center, 1985), 3, 16.
6. Mary M. Connors, Albert A. Harrison, and Faren R. Akens, Living Aloft: Human Requirements for Extended Spaceflight (NASA: Ames Research Center, 1985), 7.
7. Nathan C. Goldman, American Space Law: International and Domestic (Ames: Iowa State University Press, 1988), 135.
8. Mary M. Connors, Albert A. Harrison, and Faren R. Akens, Living Aloft: Human Requirements for Extended Spaceflight (NASA: Ames Research Center, 1985), 285.
9. U.S. Dept of Justice http://www.usdoj.gov/cops/news_info/bg_info/bg_definition.htm . Community Oriented Policing, as defined by the U.S. Department of Justice, places an emphasis on building strong partnerships between communities and policing agencies. It is, in actuality, a return to old-style proactive policing where officers and the citizens in their neighborhoods knew and trusted each other. Proactive interaction on a daily basis, regardless of whether any crime has occurred, establishes and maintains more personal connections. The result is that, in each other's eyes, the officer becomes more than just a nameless enforcer behind mirrored sunglasses and the citizens become individual people, not just "the unwashed masses". Strictly reactive interactions, on the other hand, are what lead to "police-citizen schisms" where the police are only known for who they have had to subdue, arrest, or shoot and the community is just known as the place where the criminals are. The reactive model is self-reinforcing, becoming the proverbial "vicious circle".
10. David Buden and Joseph A. Angelo, Jr., "Nuclear Energy-Key to Lunar Development," Lunar Bases and Space Activities of the 21st Century (Houston: Lunar and Planetary Institute, 1985), 86.
11. Discovery Channel Video #724419, "Space Colonies", 1999.
12. Mary M. Connors, Albert A. Harrison, and Faren R. Akens, Living Aloft: Human Requirements for Extended Spaceflight (NASA: Ames Research Center, 1985), 284-285.
13. Zegrahm Expeditions, a company currently working on plans for space tourism, provided a $31,000.00 Antarctica prize package to be won on the game show "Wheel of Fortune" in April of 1999.
14. Frances Fiorino, Editor's Perspectives: Passengers Who Carry "Surly Bonds of Earth" Aloft (New York: Aviation Week and Space Technology, December 21/28, 1998), 123.
15. Mary M. Connors, Albert A. Harrison, and Faren R. Akens, Living Aloft: Human Requirements for Extended Spaceflight (NASA: Ames Research Center, 1985), 257.
16. Mary M. Connors, Albert A. Harrison, and Faren R. Akens, Living Aloft: Human Requirements for Extended Spaceflight (NASA: Ames Research Center, 1985), 228-229.
17. Aviation Week and Space Technology; March 15, 1999; p 21. "Solar eruptions that can disrupt satellites, power grids, navigation aids and electronics can now be predicted days before they hit Earth...the formation of an S-shaped pattern on the surface (of the sun) would often lead to a coronal mass ejection"
18. Lunar Prospector Website http://lunarprospector.arc.nasa.gov/science/newresults/mer.html . "Although it was previously believed that the Moon's magnetic field was too weak to repel the charged particles of the solar wind, an intriguing magnetic anomaly on the moon's surface has been found that can stand off the solar wind, thus creating the smallest known magnetosphere, magnetosheath and bow shock system in the Solar System. While most planets' global fields create a large encompassing magnetosphere around the entire body, the moon contains magnetized rocks on its upper layers, some of which are magnetized strongly enough to form small dipole magnetic fields scattered on the lunar surface. These mini-magnetospheres, around 100 km in diameter (the Moon is approximately 3500 km in diameter), can stand off the solar wind locally."
19. Mary M. Connors, Albert A. Harrison, and Faren R. Akens, Living Aloft: Human Requirements for Extended Spaceflight (NASA: Ames Research Center, 1985), 135.